GLOBAL EDUCATION FOR EVERY STUDENT

In the 1980s era of big mainframe computers and telephone landlines, if you owned a personal computer or a “car phone,” you were either affluent or worked for a major corporation. It would have been hard at that time to imagine personal computers in eight out of 10 American households and cell phones in almost every pocket worldwide.By the end of their K-12 careers, global-ready students are able to develop and apply critical cultural frameworks in their investigations and learning about global society, geography, environment, economy and politics.

For students in K-12 public schools, access to global education is today’s equivalent to having a personal computer or mobile phone in the 1980s— it’s for the privileged few. The bad news about global education in 2014 is that unless you are on a college or university campus, in a well-funded school district with an International Baccalaureate (IB) program, or attending a private school committed to global themes, you’re highly unlikely to find it.

Few graduates of our schools reflect real preparedness for the global reality of work and life in our times. Despite the multinational nature of commerce, the increasingly international character of our communities and schools, and the interconnectedness of culture globally, a robust global education is the exception, not the rule, for students.

There is good news. It doesn’t have to be that way. The capacity and infrastructure to scale global education for every student in every school in every community exists now.

What Do We Mean When We Say Global Education?

It is first important to be clear about what we are trying to achieve. The field of global education has suffered from being defined more by its means than its ends. Global education is not a food festival or a cultural awareness project or a dual language immersion program, although it might involve each of those approaches. Global education is about developing global competence: the attitude, skills and knowledge needed to understand and participate in a globally connected world.

Specifically, students with global competence:

  • Explore their own culture, make comparisons with other cultures and investigate global issues and challenges.
  • Think critically and problem solve on issues that demand perspective taking and research skills.
  • Develop awareness of cultural diversity and global issues.

By the end of their K-12 careers, global-ready students are able to develop and apply critical cultural frameworks in their investigations and learning about global society, geography, environment, economy and politics.

There are schools around the country where this is happening. Our organization, VIF International Education, works with school districts to develop and launch Passport Schools that are infused with global content, themes and experiences, and are dedicated to building global competence. There are other public and private examples, including Asia Society’s International Studies Schools Network, that make it their mission to develop high school graduates who can communicate and collaborate on an international scale.

The challenge is to go beyond some lighthouse or beacon schools, which disproportionately support academically and economically advantaged students and families, and provide this level of global preparedness to every student.

Using the Old Infrastructure of Schooling to Achieve New Global Competence Goals

For global education to achieve both impact and scale—and you need both if the goal is global preparedness for every student—solutions that use the existing infrastructure of schooling are required.

Global education does not need new courses, new standards, and new models of schooling or new accountability measures to scale. Instead, it can rely on the existing infrastructure of schools and classrooms to drive global learning and competence.

Let’s return for a moment to the personal computer and the cell phone. In the mid 1980s, the market or demand for the PC and cell phones existed. But the technology and price points did not provide for consumption on a mass scale. When the innovation and technology caught up with the demand and the price point for adoption dropped to mass consumer levels, scale occurred quickly.

That is where global education is today. The demand is present for global education—the willingness of financially secure districts to support dual language immersion programs or families to pay upwards of $50,000 per year for globally themed high schools — like Avenues in New York — stipulates to it. The question is when will the technology and the innovation and the price point exist to allow for mass adoption? The answer: now.

Getting to Scale: Globalizing Classroom Instruction and Refocusing Traditional Language Learning

Just as with any academic pursuit, for students to become globally competent they need consistent time on task and teachers with the knowledge and skills to support them. That means their daily academic life needs to be replete with teachers and learning that reflect global themes, international awareness and opportunities to develop critical skills.

To provide that kind of education and accomplish it within the current infrastructure of schooling, the focus should be on two strategic objectives:

  1. Supporting teachers to globalize instruction
  2. Re-imagining language learning

Both strategies have the advantage of usable infrastructure and can be informed by emerging innovations and technology that make them affordable and scalable across schools nationwide.

Strategy #1: Supporting Teachers to Globalize Instruction

The beauty of global content is that it can be used to teach to state standards at any grade level or core subject. Global content, projects and experiences can be powerful tools in advancing core knowledge and critical skills. Lessons plans and course modules can exist within and help drive state, district and school curriculum frameworks and approaches to meeting standards.

The challenge, of course, is that it is easier said than done. Teachers need ongoing training and easy access to resources that support the integration of global content and provide them with the content itself — that means professional development on instructional approaches and materials for classroom use. Until recently, that has been a tall order.

Today, online instructional support platforms are providing that access for teachers. Teachers can access lessons plans, course modules or entire courses; share course materials and products; engage in virtual communities; and access professional development modules focused on teaching to global competencies.

These instructional platforms don’t have to be solely the province of existing teachers and schools. Teacher preparation programs can use these resources to better prepare teacher candidates to infuse their teaching with global content and skills. These preparation programs are another example of existing infrastructure that can be leveraged to ensure students anywhere have access to teachers who are infusing their classrooms with global content and skill building.

Strategy #2: Refocusing Traditional Language Learning

While every teacher can become a global-ready teacher with access to quality professional development and instructional materials, none are better positioned than our teachers of second languages. Middle and high schools across the United States already have in place courses and teachers that provide instruction on culture and international understanding through the study of language.

The problem with our existing approach to language, as I have argued elsewhere (see “Language Education We Can Use,” Education Week, Jan. 9, 2013), is that we use an approach—one period a day for 180 days—that has been proven to be grossly inadequate. With a primary goal of increased language proficiency and a secondary goal of increased global knowledge, we end up achieving neither. It’s time to innovate on the model.

At present, we aim to teach language to 100 percent of the students with a success rate of one percent. Instead, we should aim for 10 percent participation in dual language immersion to achieve 100 percent success and support the remaining 90 percent of students with courses that will build survival language skills, cultural understanding and global knowledge.

By shifting our language proficiency approach to a dual language immersion strategy, we can preserve the infrastructure of traditional high school, credit world language courses and refocus them to have a greater emphasis on the study of global and international affairs and the economies, societies and cultures of other nations and on survival language skills. These courses would serve the goals of global competence, as well as include survival skills goals for language acquisition.

State and District Leadership to Drive Global Education

We have the infrastructure, technology and innovation in place today to globalize learning for every student. To move these efforts into our classrooms, it will be important for states and districts to take actions that make clear their commitment to global education for not just the few, but the many.

Recently, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, a national coalition of 28 member companies and organizations—including Apple, Intel, Ford, LEGO Education and the National Education Association— released a “Framework for State Action on Global Education.” The framework provides a comprehensive strategy to ensure students have the global competencies and international understanding that will prepare them for work and life in the 21st century.

Included in that strategy were three key steps that would augment and drive a strategic focus on globalizing instruction and refocusing language learning:

  1. Adopt definitions of student and teacher global competency to anchor state and district global education agendas.
  2. Create a network of districts, schools and educators to drive implementation and innovation. Use the networks to create a sense of community and commitment among participants.
  3. Institute a recognition (designation) program for students, teachers, principals, schools and districts that provides incentives for educators and educational leaders to adopt innovative global education practices.

A Moore’s Law Timetable for Global Education

For decades, global education for all students has been an aspirational goal. It has been a recommendation in countless reports from national and state-based commissions and task forces, a critical need espoused by the U.S. Departments of State and Education, an economic development imperative suggested by business and industry, and an important learning goal voiced by educators. And yet it has remained an anomaly in our public schools.

Today, the possibility for dramatic increases in access to global education is within our reach. By using the existing infrastructure of American public education, deploying the technology and innovative approaches that are available now, and sending clear leadership signals about the importance of building global competence in our students, we can make global education a reality in every classroom.

Moore’s law, which essentially holds that processing power for computers will double every two years, describes the rapid pace of technological change and productivity in our world today. It also helps explain how quickly we have seen a personal computer and cell phones become an expectation for all households.

It’s time for a Moore’s Law in global education. It’s time we expect that the number of students with access to global education that leads to global competence will double every year until we reach every student, every teacher, every school and every community in America

A taste of the Big Apple

New York school Daniel Hale Williams shows how a strong vision and shared long-term goals can have a transformational effect.

In addition to building on successful initiatives in Scotland, the Scottish Attainment Challenge is learning from models in other parts of the world that have achieved success in closing the attainment gap in education. During her recent visit to New York, Scotland’s First Minister Nicola Sturgeon visited Brooklyn Elementary School P. S. 307 Daniel Hale Williams, which has been recognised for its remarkable transition from “chaos and confusion” to a situation where disadvantaged pupils are gaining success both in and out of the classroom. Teaching Scotland spoke exclusively to Principal Roberta Davenport, who is attributed with turning the school around, to learn some of the secrets to the school’s achievement.

The seeds of success

Roberta recalled that when she began in post 12 years ago, “the focus in the school was not on teaching and learning, but more on behaviour”. And so she started from scratch, by building a vision for the school. “We began by pulling together members of the school community to talk about what kind of school we wanted and that led us to conduct a comprehensive needs assessment,” Roberta explained. “We looked at the attendance rate, test scores, the number of incidents and disciplinary issues over time, the classroom environments, class work, class size, the materials and resources that we were using in the building and the curriculum.

“Safety came first, and so we created a code of conduct. We also came up with our core values, which are respect, responsibility, resiliency and reasoning, and made sure that all of our decisions were looked at through those expectations. We made sure that teachers’ voices were heard, and that they were part of the decision-making process and helped to shape the vision, mission and goals for the school.”

Balanced against a strong academic programme was a strategy of enrichment that involved the introduction of an arts programme to the school. Behind this was the need to focus on pupils’ strengths, talents and interests. Roberta said: “We needed to expose children to different aspects of the world, the arts in particular. And so we brought in a violin programme and a dance programme with a local ballet company, for example.”

Social emotional learning

Social and emotional learning has been key to transforming the school and Roberta sees this aspect of learning as in fact “the missing link in all our schools”. One of the ways this has been introduced is through peer mediation and conflict resolution. “Our aim with this is to help children understand that conflict is a part of life and we must learn the skills and the attitude to resolve conflict appropriately. We’ve worked diligently on helping children understand that, no matter what they do, we want them and they belong to us – ‘We’re not angry at you; we’re going to hold you to certain standards and expectations.’ And if they do something that is seriously wrong, we help them understand that there are consequences.”

Restorative justice circles is a powerful technique used to help the children understand the impact of their actions, and prepare them for life beyond school. Roberta explained the practice: “We bring the child who caused the harm into a circle with everyone in the building who has been impacted by the decision of that child. Every person who joins the circle says to the student, ‘When you did that, this is how it affected me.’ The environment is very safe, and it’s aimed at helping a child understand that your choices have an impact on the entire school community.”

Celebrating children

Roberta added that the school also places great emphasis on celebrating children’s effort, perseverance and growth. “When children finish a unit in writing, for example, we invite the entire school community to come in and give positive feedback on each child’s work. Because our children come out of very challenging backgrounds, they’re not often championed or celebrated and so we’ve made that part of our culture. Again, this has helped to transform behaviour.”

Partnerships

Partnerships between the school and community organisations have also played an important role in the school’s success, helping to extend the school day, extend the school year, enrich the educational experience for children and provide funding support for particular initiatives. Ms Davenport explained that the school’s partnerships have been built out of a vision for the whole community. “When our partners come in, I talk with them about the school’s purpose and identity and what we’re trying to accomplish and they ask, ‘How can we help?’ And ‘How can we be part of this?'”

New York take aways

One “Children who come out of impoverished circumstances need structure because many of them are coming out of disorganised homes. They need to know how the building works, that they can depend on order and organisation and predictability.”

Two “Knowing every child and every child understanding, believing and feeling that he or she is so important and so valuable. Instilling that sense of ‘no matter what I do, I belong’.”

Three “If we want kids in this 21st-century world that we live in to be engaged in school, we have got to create relevant classroom experiences for them.”

21st century realities

As you know, the teaching and learning dynamic has evolved significantly over the course of the past several decades, from the historic one-room schoolhouse with desks in rows to virtual classrooms, digital resources and schools as a window to our world. One constant: great teaching and great teachers.

It’s why the Ontario College of Teachers places great value in teacher preparation programmes. An historic change was marked this past September on how aspiring teachers prepare for the realities of today’s classrooms.

These aspiring teachers, who are enrolled in the enhanced teacher education programme, which came into effect on 1 September, 2015, have an exciting future as they begin their programme of four academic semesters with a minimum of 80 days of supervised practice teaching. Both the duration of the programme and the practicum have been doubled.

The increased duration has enabled Ontario universities offering teacher education programmes to facilitate the development of Ontario’s new teachers in three broad areas: curriculum, pedagogical and instructional strategies, and the teaching context such as classroom, social, diversity and legal perspectives. Many of these content areas were included in the former programmes, but they have been enriched in the expanded programme.

More specifically, the programme:

  • extends learning time from two semesters to four semesters
  • increases the duration of practice teaching time from 40 days to a minimum of 80 days
  • instructs future teachers on a wider diversity of student needs, including an orientation regarding mental health, addictions and wellbeing.

In addition to expanding the duration of the programme, the number of funded post-secondary spaces in faculties of education in Ontario has been reduced by 50 per cent. This reduction will help address an oversupply of graduates and enable Ontario’s qualified teachers to find employment and begin sharing their passion for learning with Ontario students.

Approximately 9,000 teachers per year have been graduating from Ontario faculties of education over the past several years, despite the fact that there were only approximately 6,000 teachers needed annually.

Moving forward

The Ontario College of Teachers was established in 1997 to regulate and govern the teaching profession, including the certification of teachers. The College accredits more than 50 full and part-time teacher education programmes in 18 university faculties of education in the province.

Based on 10 years of research of newly certified teachers and an extensive review of teacher qualifications, the College recommended significant changes to teacher education programmes in Ontario.

In June 2014, the Ontario’s Ministry of Education, working in partnership with the College, announced plans to lengthen the programme to give future teachers more practical experience and greater exposure to teaching methods that will help teachers support diverse student needs.

As the regulator of Ontario’s teaching profession, the College has been instrumental in the success of the expanded programme. For example, we:

  • provided guidance to the faculties of education about the core components of the programme
  • supported the faculties to develop innovative programmes to prepare teachers
  • provided public accountability by reviewing each of the programmes through the College’s accreditation process
  • reviewed and modified the certification requirements applicants need to meet based on the revised teacher education programme
  • provided information to the public and the profession about the exciting changes.

How does the expanded programme improve learning for students?

We know that students benefit from great teaching and the excellent preparation of teachers. More time for teacher preparation and a reflection of the evolution of teaching and learning in the 21st century and Ontario’s education context will help students to succeed individually and collectively.

The enhanced areas of focus also include:

  • Understanding the content and pedagogy in areas such as literacy, numeracy, science, environment, knowledge of and appreciation for First Nations, Metis and Inuit traditions, cultures and perspectives.
  • Teaching in the Ontario context (e.g. diversity, equity, safe and accepting schools, creation of a positive school climate).
  • Professional relationships (communicating and engaging with teachers, school staff, students, parents, community).
  • Classroom management and organisation.
  • Child and adolescent development (i.e. brain development and understanding student transitions ages 0-21 and grades K-12).
  • Teaching English Language Learners/French Language Learners .
  • Pedagogy, assessment and evaluation for learning for specific subjects (e.g. mathematics, literacy)
  • Special education (e.g. writing Individual Education Plans, mental health).
  • The majority of students in the first cohort of the new programme will graduate in 2017. The College is looking forward to welcoming them into our ever-evolving profession as we continue to set the standard for great teaching.